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Classical Theory of Motivation


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Time and Motion Studies, method study, work measurement


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Taylor's theory (Principles of Scientific Management, 1911)was given practical application by Frank Gilbreth who invented time and motion studies when he devised a method of working that cut the number of motions when laying a brick from 18 to 5. In a method study there is accurate observation and recording of existing work methods, from which a new method might emerge. Work measurement is the use of accurate observation and recording to determine the time it would take for a qualified worker to complete a specific job to a required level of performance. These are also time studies. Times can be measured by (a) synthetic timing - the time for each component of a job is measured; (b) pre-determined motion time study - the times for different human motions required for the job are added up to arrive at an overall time; (c) analytical estimating - used when there are non-repetitive one-off jobs, the time is calculated from a knowledge of the operations and skills required.
Contents of
Classical Theory of Motivation

1 Classical Motivation Theory
2 Classical organization theory
3 Span of Control
4 Henri Fayol
5 Weber's theory of bureaucracy
6 Scientific management, Frederick Taylor
7 Time and Motion Studies, method study, work measurement
8 Alienation and the classical theory of motivation
9 The problems of Bureaucracy
10 Chris Argyris
11 Job design
12 Process theories of motivation

Related articles: (1) Leadership & Management Styles, (2) Classical Theory of Motivation